What is CoreML

Core ML is Apple’s machine learning platform for embedding machine learning models into iOS apps. It works with all Apple devices and provides rapid performance and easy integration of learned machine learning models.

An iPhone app analyzes data, detects trends, and makes predictions using Core ML APIs and stored data. Inferences are made immediately on the mobile device in this case. On the user’s device, models are also taught.

The application of an ML algorithm on training data yields a Core ML model. The Create ML program included with Xcode may be used to create a model. There is no need to convert in this situation because the models created with Create ML are already in a format that can be used in an app. Converting your model to Core ML format is also possible using Core ML tools and third-party ML libraries.

Three key technologies are used to construct the framework:

  • The CPU handles memory-intensive tasks like natural language processing (NLP).
  • The GPU is useful for computationally expensive tasks like image processing and object recognition.
  • The ANE framework was created to help neural networks run faster.

One of the best features of Core ML is the ability to swap between the CPU, GPU, and ANE on the fly. This improves on-device performance and eliminates the need to choose which model to run.

Core ML has gone through three incarnations since its debut in 2017, as Apple has improved the framework and introduced new features. It is presently in its fourth version, dubbed Core ML 4.0.


Voice recognition, NLP, vision, and sound analysis are the four training domains that form Core ML’s architecture.

  • With capabilities like tokenization, language identification, and picking up names from the text, NLP enables natural language processing and speech recognition.
  • Facial identification, picture segmentation, text and object detection, and feature tracking are all performed by vision. The vision library takes the iPhone camera as its input and handles everything from the foundation multimedia framework to the raw picture format.
  • Sound analysis and speech recognition study voice patterns and train algorithms to recognize different voices.

Model and integration

Each year, the number of Core ML support capabilities and models expands. The following are the major categories:

  • Images are fed into image models, which recognize and segment objects.
  • Text models are taught to interpret text data, predict attitudes from phrases, categorize and tag words, and answer queries.
  • Video models classify movement and recognize positions.
  • Audio data is classified using sound models.
  • Tabular models use tabular data and use regression to estimate continuous values and classify them.

Annually, Apple’s machine learning team adds to their list of supported libraries. In 2020, they announced support for TensorFlow and PyTorch, two of the most prominent neural network frameworks, and converted coremltools into a one-stop-shop for converting to Core ML.

In the same year, the business released Model Intermediate Language, a single converter stack (MIL). MIL was created to simplify the conversion process and make adding support for new frameworks simple. It brings the stack together by offering a common interface for gathering data from many frameworks.

The benefits and drawbacks of utilizing Core ML

Apple is continually improving its machine learning technology, and Core ML improves year after year as consumers have more possibilities to utilize it in apps.

If you’re still not sure if it’s right for you, here’s a list of the primary benefits and drawbacks of Core ML implementation:


  • The on-device implementation ensures data privacy.
  • Low latency and outcomes that are close to real-time
  • Compatibility with the majority of commonly used machine learning models
  • Switching between CPU, GPU, and ANE is done automatically.
  • Online accessibility


  • App size has been increased.
  • Power usage is high.